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Explanation of terms related to UPS power supply (2)

 Ups power term explanation     |      2018-10-13 11:38

  GROUNDLOOP: Inside the computer, there are many sockets or data transmission lines and other places where they are frequently used, and there are grounding wires connected to other grounding wires, called "ground loops". The function is to use the common ground line to introduce the excess feedback current and interference into the ground, so as to avoid the disorder of the line and the data. In addition, the ground loop is more likely to introduce interference that is lurking in the system into the ground, reducing the damage caused by noise caused by the computer.

  Air switch: A current protection device that trips when the current exceeds the air switch specification rating. The air switch prevents fire caused by overcurrent in the line or electronic equipment line in the building. 1. The efficiency and safety of the transformer are important, depending on the materials and processing technology. 2. The transformer itself has a heat dissipation problem, so the ventilation of the power supply equipment cannot be blocked.

  Inrush current: The capacitor inside the rectifier will draw a large charging current at the moment of starting. The cathode display (CRT) needs a large demagnetizing current at the moment of starting, the transformer has excitation current at the moment of starting, etc., so that the UPS is under load. The device must withstand large inrush currents when it is turned on.

  Non-Soluble Wire Switch: A current protection device that BREAKER trips when the current exceeds the rating of a non-solvent switch (BREAKRT: a family called a fuse switch or circuit breaker). Exceeding the BRESKER rating will cause a fire in the line or electronic equipment line in the building.

  Staged load: A load device that can be quickly removed or removed.

  Inverter: A converter that converts direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC). The UPS uses an inverter to convert the energy of the battery into an alternating current for use by an alternating current load. The performance of the inverter is different. The output AC waveform has two kinds of staircase wave and sine wave (SINE WAVE), and the distortion coefficient (THD) also has different performances due to the inverter.

  Withstand voltage: refers to the maximum voltage that the device can not withstand between the live parts (such as the outer casing, the panel) and the live part, and the breakdown voltage is higher than the withstand voltage. Insulation and pressure resistance are critical to personnel safety.

  Inverter (DC/AC): A converter that converts direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC). The UPS uses an inverter to convert the energy of the battery into an alternating current for use by an alternating current load. The performance of the inverter is different. The output AC waveform has two kinds of staircase wave and sine wave (SINE WAVE), and the distortion coefficient (THD) also has different performances due to the inverter.

  Cold start: It means that the UPS is started when there is no mains, and some UPS cannot be turned on at this time.

  Transient recovery time: The time required for the output voltage to return to the specified range when the load is abrupt (0-100%, 100% - 0), usually in the order of milliseconds (ms).

  Filter: A device used to eliminate interfering noise, filtering the input or output to obtain pure AC power.

  American standard socket: American standard socket form, zero, fire line is 11-shaped arrangement, ground wire is at the head of 11.

  Shielding: A means of isolating electromagnetic radiation by using physical principles.

  Thunderbolt: A high voltage protection component used at the input of a device. If the voltage at both ends is higher than the protection specification value, a short circuit will occur inside it, and

  Absorbs the input high voltage.

  Apparent power (APPARENTPOWER): VA, the change in power has an absolute relationship with the voltage and current of RMS (ROOT-MEAN-SPUARE).

  Data Machine: This device is a device that converts the analog signal on the telephone line into a digital signal that can be read by the PC, or converts the digital signal of the PC into an analog signal to facilitate transmission on the telephone line.

  Random Access Memory [RANDOMACCESSMEMORY (RAM)]: Dynamically stores the data required by the CPU.

  Simple Network Management Protocol [SIMPLEMETWORKMANAGFEMENTPROTOCOL (SNMP)]: is a widely used network management protocol, which can help network administrators manage various devices in the TCP/IP network without complicated instructions. The basic concept is only FETDH. -STORE (storage-fetch) two instructions, simple, stable, flexible is its biggest advantage

  Instantaneous voltage drop: Some will last from a few milliseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. If the voltage drop lasts or occurs frequently, it will cause the computer and electrical appliances to malfunction and reduce the life.

  Phase-locked circuit: A technical specification of phase-locking speed. The principle is: when the input voltage enters the UPS, the UPS will control the frequency of its output power source to be the same as the input power frequency, thereby achieving the same input and output frequency and no phase. The time difference, but when the output frequency and the input frequency produce a time difference, the UPS is powered by the battery or does not output power to the load.

  Three-phase: The standard power system is a three-phase power supply. The first phase is a glass-wave and the phase difference is 120 degrees, and the single-phase is one of the three phases.

  Input voltage range: The range in which the UPS allows the mains to change. The larger the range, the better the UPS adaptability.

  Neutral line: In a single-phase power system, the function of the neutral line is to conduct the feedback current, which is distributed in the same area as the socket end and the ground.

  Distortion: Distortion is divided into waveform distortion, voltage distortion, etc., regardless of volume distortion, is calculated as a percentage, and the magnitude of the distortion is related to harmonics, voltage, current, and power factor. (Refer to HARMONIC)

  Mains: That is, we say AC (AC). The AC is divided into three types: voltage, current and frequency. The frequency can be divided into 50HZ (hertz) and 60HZ (Hz). The voltage distribution is from 100VA-240VA. Generally, the normal AC waveform is a sine wave, but the ladder wave is used to form a sine wave. This waveform is not suitable for motors or inductive loads.

  Radio Frequency Interference (RADIOFREPUENCY): This is an electromagnetic interference that exists in communication equipment or computer operating equipment. Some of the interference sources are transmitted by the equipment's line or radio antenna. In some cases, it may be due to amplitude ( Interference) is too large, causing problems such as interruption of radio transmission or malfunction of computer operating equipment.

  Synchronization: The output sine wave power generated by the UPS and the input AC power supply are both sinusoidal, and the two need to maintain the same frequency and phase. This is the synchronization.

  Synchronous converter (SYCHRONOUS): A converter between two power supplies and a load.

  Inrush current: When the electronic device is connected to the power socket, because the device has been shut down for a period of time, the instantaneous power supply will charge the capacitor in the device at the current, so it will generate a momentary high current of 3~10 microseconds, and by The power cord releases its radiation and affects other electronic devices.

  Surge: An instantaneous high voltage from hundreds of volts (amperes) to thousands of volts (amperes) or higher for a period of time from a few thousandths of a second to a few hundredths of a second. In the case of electronic equipment, it is a great potential danger, which can result in loss of data or shortened life of electronic parts, which can seriously cause damage to equipment or have more serious consequences. There are two reasons for the surge: the natural world produces lightning strikes; secondly, the electronic device is added to the load instantaneously.

  Surge suppressor: effectively absorbs the overvoltage and overcurrent generated by the surge, and maintains normal voltage and current supply to the electronic equipment, and reduces the damage caused by the surge and prolongs the service life, due to the generation of the surge It is an even image, so it is necessary to install a surge suppressor for electrical equipment.

  Note: At present, many products replace the surge suppressor with a surge suppression circuit.

  Magnetic resonance transformer (FERRO): It is a kind of transformer with ferrite (FERRITE) as the main body. It can combine with external capacitor to resonate with it, so that the output power supply can achieve the effect of voltage regulation. It is used in various early UPS power supplies. A kind of transformer, but because it is too bulky and cumbersome, and its voltage regulation accuracy is not high, it is gradually being eliminated.

  Bit: In computer data, it is the smallest unit, with only 0 and 1 changes.

  Bytes: There are 8 BITS (bits) in a single byte.

  Maintenance time: In the case of UPS, there is a capacitor designed inside the UPS for discharging when the mains is powered off. This discharge time can be from 8MS to 100MS in the regulations made by CBEMA.

  Sequence 埠 (ASYNCHRONOUS): A connector for transmitting signals. (or refer to RS-232, TRANSFER)

  Phase: The general power is divided into single-phase and three-phase, and the voltage waveforms are all sinusoidal. Due to the characteristics of the electrical equipment (the input is a rectifying filter circuit or an inductive load), the current used to input the electrical equipment is not The inclusion of higher harmonics is some phase behind the input voltage waveform, resulting in lower power consumption than the energy produced by it and a poor power factor.

  Current limit: It is an overload protection function of the power supply. The charger inside the UPS will generally design this function to avoid damage to the battery caused by excessive charging current, but the UPS output itself is less likely to use this function, only when the overload occurs, the bypass or shutdown occurs. According to the definition of current limit, it means that when the load current exceeds a certain set value, the load current is limited.

  Limiting resistor (METALOXIDEVARISTOR): It is a device that protects the input end of the power supply as a protection. When the electrical equipment is plugged into the wrong power supply or the power supply surge is too large, it will cause damage. The purpose of the device's voltage limiting resistor is two: first Protect the electronic components inside the appliance from high voltage damage; reduce the maintenance of electrical equipment.

  Efficiency (EFFICIENCY): is the ratio of output wattage to input wattage. If the number is closer to 1, the efficiency is better. For online UPS, the general efficiency is about 70%~80%. That is, input 1000W, the output is about 700W~800W, the UPS itself consumes 200W~300W; while the backup and online interactive UPS, the efficiency is about 80%~95%, the efficiency is higher than the online type. .

  Virtual power: Virtual power (VA) is an abbreviation for voltage (VOLTAGE) current (CURRENT). VA refers to the apparent power, expressed in mathematical terms, the virtual power is: input voltage (V) x maximum current consumption (A).

  Harmonic distortion: Harmonic interference, harmonic refers to the odd wave (3, 5, 7...) existing in the sine wave. The change has nothing to do with the frequency, but has an absolute relationship with the change of voltage and current. Harmonic waves have no use in electronic circuits. They only cause over-temperature of electronic equipment or damage to electronic components. Therefore, there are filters at the input or output of many UPSs to filter out unwanted harmonic interference or other miscellaneous News, protection equipment

  Ethernet Road: This standard is often used in general area networks to connect computers.

  RMS (ROOT-MEAN-SPUARE): or rms value. In AC or sine wave, the effective value of the voltage is 0.707. This data is based on the energy peak generated by the sine wave voltage and current converted at 1 cycle. .

  Online interactive UPS: In the circuit architecture, the special one is the variable current converter (BI-LATERALCONVERTER) and the automatic voltage regulation circuit (AVR: AUTO)

  VOLTAGEREGULATION), its function is: bidirectional converter has two functions of charger (CHARGER) and converter (DC/AC), among which the charger is similar to the fast charger, which can take 7~8 hours of charging time. By shortening it to 2~4 hours, the battery can be fully charged, so the efficiency is higher than that of the general charger. In the AVR part, a transformer with automatic boost (BOOST) and buck (BUCK) function, when the microprocessor detects a low voltage, AVR

  Then, the relay is automatically switched to the boosting coil, and vice versa, thereby achieving a relatively stable output voltage.

  Online uninterruptible power supply: ONLINEUPS, its main circuit structure includes: surge absorption filter circuit, AC conversion DC circuit (AC/DC), DC conversion AC circuit (DC/AC), microprocessor control circuit, bypass Wait for five kinds. The action mode: when the utility power is normal, the utility power passes through the surge absorption filter circuit → the alternating current conversion direct current circuit → the direct current conversion alternating current circuit → converts the alternating current output supply load, and simultaneously charges the battery; once the microprocessor control circuit detects When the mains supply is interrupted, it is immediately discharged by the battery → DC conversion AC circuit → and converted to the AC output supply load. If the microprocessor control circuit detects a UPS fault, the UPS will jump to the bypass (BYPASS) by the relay (RELAY), and the utility will supply the load power and sound an alarm to the user.

  TRANSIT: Refers to the last change in voltage when power is instantaneously lost (interrupted). There are many power problems related to transients. Usually there are very special phenomena in transients, such as surges, high-point waves, temporary power shortages, severe voltage sinks, interference, or other types of transient phenomena. Wait.

  Rectifier: A circuit device that converts AC to DC.

  Conversion time: The time at which isolation begins, which is the time it takes for the transformer to receive power and convert it to the power required to supply the load or other load.

  Transfer switch: Use the transformer switch principle to adjust the output voltage required by the power supply or other power supply to the load.

  Bypass: The function of the UPS is: When the UPS itself fails, the relay inside the UPS (RELAY) automatically switches to the mains, and the bypass circuit continuously supplies power to the load device, so that the UPS power will not cause power interruption. . This extends battery life and ensures that the battery is always in optimum condition.

  Start-up (start-up): The small UPS start-up is generally started by one switch. The medium-sized UPS needs to operate multiple switches. In this case, it should be closed one by one in the specified order, which is beneficial to improve the reliability of the UPS.

  Joule: A basic unit of test energy that is the energy required to move an object by 1 meter with a force of 1 Newton. This is called 1 Joule.

  Short-term pressure drop: refers to a temporary voltage drop. When the AC voltage is lower than the normal standard for 1 second, this situation is called SAG (pressure drop), and sometimes even the load is too large or the power peak period, the power company If the amount of power supply is insufficient, a brief voltage drop will occur.

  Batteries: Most of the batteries in the UPS are maintenance-free lead-acid sealed batteries. The main functions are: when the AC (commercial power) is normally supplied, the mains supply is converted to DC power (DC) by the UPS to keep the battery fully charged. State, once the mains is interrupted, the battery is immediately reserved