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UPS power supply related terms (1)

 Ups power term explanation     |      2018-10-13 11:39

  An hour (AH): One of the indicators that reflects the size of the battery, which is defined as the time at which the discharge is performed at the specified current. The battery of the same voltage has a large capacity of a large number of hours; the battery of the same number of hours has a large voltage and a large capacity. The battery capacity is usually expressed in terms of voltage and ampere-hours, such as 12V/7AH, 12V24AH, 12V/65AH, and 12V/100AH.

  Arrester: A device used to absorb lightning strikes. The working principle is that a lightning strike generates an instantaneous high voltage into the circuit, causing the arrester to conduct lightning current and clamp the circuit voltage within a safe range. There are various components that can be used as lightning protection devices, such as varistor, discharge tube, and the like.

  Note: The lightning strike voltage is a high voltage discharge between the atmosphere and the earth. Therefore, the lightning arrester must have a good grounding to function.

  Transformer: It adopts the principle of electromagnetic induction, which is composed of iron core and coil. It can be divided into two parts: primary side coil and secondary side coil. The primary side input voltage and the secondary side have induced voltage output for electric energy transmission. The secondary side can provide a variety of voltage outputs, with boost and buck functions, so the transformer can meet the power requirements of many different voltages in the circuit.

  Voltage regulation accuracy: refers to the relative change of the voltage at the output end, which is a hundred points. The smaller the better. When the input voltage or load changes, the output voltage of the UPS power supply will also rise or fall. The smaller the change, the higher the voltage regulation accuracy.

  Uninterruptible power supply: UPS [Uninterruptible Power System (orSupply)]: A power supply that consists of a battery pack, an inverter, and other circuits that provide AC power when the power grid is out of power.

  The UPS has the following basic functions:

  1. When the grid voltage is normal, the mains voltage is supplied to the load through the UPS voltage regulation. The UPS with good performance is a good AC voltage regulator. At the same time, it also charges the battery in the machine to store the backup energy.

  2. When the grid voltage is abnormal (undervoltage, overvoltage, power failure, interference, etc.), the inverter of the UPS converts the DC power of the battery pack into AC power to maintain the power supply to the load.

  3. The UPS automatically switches between grid power and battery power to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the load. General computer equipment allows for small power interruptions (within 10ms switching time), but sophisticated computer equipment and communication equipment do not allow power to be interrupted (switching time 0ms), so you should confirm what UPS switching time you need.

  Reactive power: The unit is VA, which is not absorbed by the load, so it is called reactive power, which constitutes another part of the apparent power. Reducing reactive power is conducive to improving the utilization of the power grid.

  Fuse: A small device that is overheated and blown. When an overload or load is short-circuited, it will cause the current to burn out the fuse, protect the electronic equipment from overcurrent, and avoid serious damage caused by internal faults in the electronic equipment. Therefore, each fuse has a rated specification, and the fuse will blow when the current exceeds the rated specification.

  Note: If you use a fuse of the same specification as specified by the original manufacturer, it may cause machine failure, or cause the line to catch fire and endanger your own safety. It is best to use the fuse of the same specification as specified by the original factory to protect the equipment and protect people's safety.

  Line voltage drop: Current passing through the line will cause a loss due to line impedance, resulting in a line drop. The line voltage drop is proportional to the length of the line and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of ​​the line.

  Backup power system: Originally referred to as diesel generators, gasoline generators, etc., these were used as backup power equipment when the mains was not available when the early UPS did not appear. However, after the emergence of UPS, due to the UPS has more advantages, it plays a dynamic response quickly and stably adjusts the output, which can eliminate the external adverse effects of the absorption power and protect the electrical equipment. Therefore, the UPS gradually takes up a large proportion in the contemporary backup power supply.

  Transformer: It adopts the principle of electromagnetic induction, which is composed of iron core and coil. It can be divided into two parts: primary side coil and secondary side coil. The primary side input voltage and the secondary side have induced voltage output for electric energy transmission. The secondary side can provide a variety of voltage outputs, with boost and buck functions, so the transformer can meet the power requirements of many different voltages in the circuit.

  MCU: A micro-control unit that uses computer hardware and software technology.

  RS485 interface: A standard interface for differential mode serial asynchronous transmission of data signals between a computer that can perform multi-station interconnection and remote transmission and other devices. RS485 is generally two data lines, and the transmission distance can reach more than 1000 meters.

  Oil machine: Usually refers to diesel or gasoline generators.

  One way of working with a UPS: The basic structure consists of a rectifier (AC/DC), a battery pack, an inverter (DC/AC), and a bypass switch. Regardless of whether the grid is normal or not, the inverter always outputs a stable AC to the load. This UPS has no switching time when the mains/battery mode is switched.

  Noise: The physical quantity used to describe the human body's quantitative perception of sound. It is generally described in dB. The noise of the UPS is generally 40-80 dB.

  Active power: The unit is W, which is the energy portion of the load that actually absorbs the conversion, which forms part of the apparent power.

  Differential Mode/Differential Mode: Refers to the way in which the noise flow path is disturbed. Any noise returned from the power line (HOT) via the neutral line (NEUTRAL) is called differential mode noise. Any noise that comes back from the power line (HOT) or the neutral line (NEUTRAL) via the ground line is called common mode noise. Generally, the common mode is not the common mode path or the differential mode path. Therefore, the noise of different paths can be processed differently by filtering and shielding.

  IGBT: There are three stages, generally G, E, and C. When adding control signals between G and E, the conduction and cutoff between E and C can be changed. The IGBT is a voltage-type driving device with high-speed switching characteristics of the MOSFET and low on-resistance of the transistor.

  Varistor: It is a kind of protection device at the input end of the power supply. It can absorb the high voltage of the input terminal. When the electrical equipment is plugged into the wrong power supply or the power supply surge is too large, it will cause damage. The role of the device varistor: protect the electronic elements inside the appliance

  MOSFET: There are three legs, generally G, D, and S. When the control signal is added between G and S, the conduction and cutoff between D and S can be changed. The MOSFET is a voltage type driving device.

  Zener diode: When the reverse current is large enough, the reverse voltage of the device is stable at the nominal value, and the forward characteristic is the same as the diode.

  Reboot: The uninterruptible power supply is turned back on after the utility power returns to normal. It can be restarted manually or pre-set by the software. After the UPS is protected, it will be reset to restart.

  Conducted Interference (EMI): Electromagnetic interference noise that propagates through the power line.

  Charger: A device used to charge a battery to fill its charge energy.


  1. The larger the capacity of the battery, the larger the charging current required, otherwise it will take a long time to charge.

  2. Choosing the right charging mode helps protect the battery and improve charging efficiency.

  3. The charger of the long delay UPS cannot be replaced by the charger of the standard machine.

  4. Damage to the charger may cause the entire battery to fail.

  Ups power term explanation

  Battery/Battery Pack: The battery used in UPS power supplies is usually a sealed lead-acid maintenance-free battery. The physicochemical properties of the battery make it almost no loss of moisture during charging and discharging, no need to add water, the closed structure can be placed arbitrarily, and no corrosive gas is generated, which avoids maintenance troubles. The standard battery voltage is 2V, 4V, 6V, 12V, and the most commonly used UPS is 12V. If one battery is not enough, it can be used in series to form a battery pack.

  Note: The life of a sealed lead-acid maintenance-free battery is closely related to how it is used and used. Pay attention to the following points:

  1. Can not be stored for a long time without use, so the battery will lose its activity and eventually lead to failure.

  2. The suitable ambient temperature of the battery is about 20 degrees. The life is higher than 40 degrees, and the effective capacity is lower than 0 degrees.

  3. It is necessary to recharge in time after deep discharge. Frequent deep discharge is not conducive to battery life.

  4. Overdischarge (discharge to below the battery rated lower limit voltage) is very harmful to the battery.

  5. The reliability of the charger and the appropriate charging capacity are critical to the life.

  Power regulation rate: The regulation accuracy of the output when the input changes.

  Communication protocol: A rule that is commonly followed by data exchange between interconnected devices.

  SNMP: An acronym for Simple Network Management Protocol, used primarily for monitoring, troubleshooting, and controlling TCP/IP networks, providing a simple network management protocol for user data programming.

  Input frequency range: The standard frequency of China's power grid is 50Hz. The UPS allows the mains frequency to have a certain range of variation. Within this range, the UPS synchronously tracks the mains frequency, and if it exceeds, it outputs at the local frequency.

  Current peak coefficient (CF): The current peak coefficient is the ratio of the peak value of the current period waveform to the effective value. Since the computer load receives the sine wave voltage, the absorbed energy does not necessarily follow the sine law, which will result in a higher peak current (current between 2.4 and 2.6 times). Therefore, the UPS should be designed to provide a CF value greater than 3. Current to meet the application of computerized loads.

  Battery series/parallel connection: multiple batteries with the same performance and capacity are connected in series by a certain polarity to form a battery pack; multiple batteries or battery packs with the same voltage are connected at the same polarity at the ends to form a parallel output. For parallel connection.

  Battery Management System: Used to protect the UPS battery and extend its life for optimal charging. The battery management system includes software and hardware, including battery characteristics determination, automatic selection of charging mode, automatic alarms, and special battery charging.

  Short circuit: It means that the DC positive and negative poles of the circuit or the AC live line are directly connected to the zero and ground lines. A short circuit can cause a serious overload, resulting in a large short-circuit current, which may burn equipment or even cause a fire.

  Ground, neutral and live: The earth is a good conductor, and the ground is connected to the earth through a deep buried electrode. The transmission of utility power is in three-phase mode and has a neutral line. When the three-phase balance is balanced, the current of the neutral line is zero, commonly known as “zero line”. Another characteristic of the neutral line is that it is matched with the ground line in the system. The electrical input is shorted and the voltage difference is close to zero. The three phase lines of the three-phase electric power and the zero line have 220 voltages, which will cause electric shock to people, commonly known as "fire line". There are strict standards for the installation and arrangement of electrical circuits. In practice, correctly assembling ground, neutral and fire wires according to standards is essential for safety.

  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): a general term for radiated and conducted interference of equipment

  Safety Extra Low Voltage (SafetyExtraLowVoltageSELV): The IEC regulations specify the limits for the rated safety voltage of electrical equipment. This regulation states that it should be isolated at high voltages or in the AC power supply section, or it should be difficult for personnel to access to ensure personnel safety.

  Crest factor (CF): The so-called CF is the ratio of the peak value of the periodic waveform to the effective value. Due to computer load receiving sine wave voltage

  CF (between 2.4 and 2.6 times current) is generated. Therefore, UPS design is often required to provide a CF value of 3 to meet the requirements of computerized loads.

  Discharge tube: is a high voltage protection element used at the input of the device. If the voltage at both ends is higher than the protection specification value, a short circuit will occur inside and the input overvoltage will be absorbed.

  Radiated Interference (EMR): This is a kind of space electromagnetic interference, which exists in communication equipment or computer operating equipment. Some of the interference sources are radiated to the space by the equipment's line or radio antenna. In some cases, it may be Because the amplitude (interference) is too large, it causes problems such as interruption of radio transmission or malfunction of computer operating equipment.

  Floating and equalizing: Both floating and equalizing are the charging modes of the battery.

  1. Floating charging working principle: When the battery is in the full state, the charger will not stop charging, still provide a constant floating charging voltage and a small floating charging current to supply the battery, because once the charger stops charging, the battery will naturally The power is released, so the floating charge is used to balance this natural discharge. Small UPSs usually use a floating charge mode.

  2. Equalization working principle: The battery is charged in a constant current and a fixed time, and the charging is faster. The charging mode that is often used by professional maintenance personnel for battery maintenance. This mode also helps to activate the chemical characteristics of the battery.

  Note: The intelligent charger has the function of automatically converting the floating charge and the equalization according to the working state of the battery, which can fully utilize the advantages of the floating charge and the equal charge to achieve fast charging and prolong battery life.

  Load regulation rate: The regulation accuracy of the output when the load changes.

  Overload: The UPS has the specified load capacity, and the overload is exceeded when the rated load is exceeded.

  Overload protection: Self-protection when the load is overloaded.

  Overvoltage protection: When the input or output voltage exceeds the safe range, the UPS automatically performs the action of disconnecting the input or protecting the output.

  Overheat protection: The power component of the UPS that is most prone to heat is provided with a temperature sensor. When the battery is overheated, the UPS is turned off or bypassed.

  Power factor: There are two different parameters of input power factor and output power factor for one device. The absolute value of power factor is between 0 and 1, which is between W (active power) and VA (apparent power). Ratio. The higher the input power factor, the higher the utilization efficiency of the UPS for the grid, and the power factor of the energy-saving UPS is above 0.9. From the output end, the higher the output power factor, the stronger the UPS load capacity, and the lower the output power factor, the weaker the UPS load capacity.

  Power factor correction: A means used to increase the input power factor of an electronic device. After the UPS is equipped with a power factor correction circuit, its input power factor can be greatly improved.

  GB socket: China's standard socket form, zero, fire line is / font arrangement, ground wire at / head.

  Common mode: refers to a way of interfering with the noise circulation path. Any noise returned from the power line (HOT) or the neutral line (NEUTRAL) via the ground line is called common mode noise.

  Silicon barrier diode: It is a diode designed with silicon (AILICON) as the main material. The silicon barrier diode is different from the general diode in that the voltage exceeds the rated voltage of the design. The polar body will have an AVALANCHE EFFECT and be turned on, so the silicon barrier diode is often used as a voltage regulator diode.

  Fault current: Refers to the flow of abnormal current in the line.

  Three remote: remote letter, telemetry, remote control. Refers to remote monitoring of the device.

  Isolation: the grid transmits power on the live and neutral lines, so